Gospel of Judas
1. When he [approached] his disciples, gathered together and seated and offering a prayer of thanksgiving over the bread, [he] laughed.
A laughing Jesus is often seen in the Nag Hammadi texts. Especially one laughing at the ignorance of his followers believing in empty ritual. He's pointing out here that ritual is only effective/beneficial when it is done from the heart, not merely from rote behavior.
2. You are from the immortal realm of Barbelo.
Barbelo is a fairly dead give-away. Even Irenaeus mentions Barbelo in connection with the Gnostics.
3. Knowing that Judas was reflecting upon something that was exalted, Jesus said to him, ÃStep away from the others and I shall tell you the mysteries of the kingdom."
In the Gospel of Mary Mary Magdalene reveals to the disciples the teachings Jesus gave to her in private. (of course most don't believe her, since she's "just" a woman.) We also see her having a greater understanding than the other disciples. Many scholars, and other people alike, have speculated that these texts represent an early power struggle in the Church, where some people accepted Mary as a source of authority and learning, and others, the 'orthodox' view point which ultimately won out, did not. My opinion is that the Gospel of Judas belonged to a group which saw Judas as another source of authority, since he too received special, secretreadGnosticc) teachings from Jesus.
4. and corruptible Sophia
DING! Again, a pretty dead give-away. And corruptible Sophia is important. Sophia, in most Gnostic myths is responsible, through her desire to know and emulate the Monad, for bringing about the demiurge, the creator of the physical world. Her actions sometimes lead to her being cast out of the Pleroma, and wandering the world, being used, sexually, by the archons and other powers. Other times she has some of her power stolen by her 'son',whichis trappeddwithinn humanity. Either way, Sophia in a text of this time (say 2nd-4th century) generally indicates a Gnostic text of some kind.
The divine parent, or Godhead, goes by many names and attributes. It is called Bythos (abyss), the Monad, The One, and (you guessed it) the Self-Generated. It is difficult to explain this 'being', since 'it' is so far outside human comprehension that we can only speak metaphorically and in incomplete images. Some times it is called Father. But Self-Generated works too!
6.Adamas and the Luminaries
Adamas is the first Human, but not inphysicallyl sense. "He" is the spiritual human, and we are reflections of "his" form. (I put he and his in quotation marks because I think the intention behind the male pronouns in the text were meant to include everyone, not just he's). This is influenced by Plato who spoke of forms, in the heaven. These forms where pure and absolute, what we saw here on earth, however, were mere reflections of these forms. Shadows on a cave wall type thing. A selection of Plato was found at Nag Hammadi, oddly not the section talking about forms. But still, the influence of Platonic though on Gnosticism, and other things, is well documented.
7. Yaldaboath and Saklas
Again, fairly common names for the demiurge, or one of his powers. These names, especially Yaldaboath (or similar names, are almost cornerstones for Gnostic texts.
So, it seems to me fairly obvious that this is a Gnostic text, the only thing left to do would be to try and determine which group it came from/was used by. The Sethians jump to mind. They, according to Irenaeus, revered Barbelo as a divine figure. They were Christian Gnostics with strong Platonic influence, from them we get the Adamas ideal. But of course we should be careful, since we get these classifications come from the people who were against the Gnostics. It is possible that this, and other texts, were not exclusive to oneparticularr group, but were used by individual groups as they saw fit.
I've also heard that some see the text as antiSemiticc, but I'm afraid I just don't see it. In some cases Gnostic texts clearly identisy the Demiurge, the ignorant if not evil creator of the world, with the God of the Old Testament, but to me this isn't anti-semitism. It's just a denial of an old world order, infavorr of a new one.
So there are my thoughts on the Gospel of Judas. I may have more to say later, but for now that's it. Untill then....